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  • Piano Concerto 2001
  • Violin Concerto 2002
  • Cello Concerto 2003
  • Eulogy Cantata 2004
  • Viola Concerto 2005
  • Piano Concerto 2006
  • Forest Concerto 2007
  • Tuba Concerto 2008
  • Clarinet Concerto 2009
  • Concerto for Man 2010
  • Concerto for India 2011
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CELLO CONCERTO (2003)
Keith Perreur-Lloyd

Orchestral Instruments:
Picc., 2 Flute, B.Flute,
2 Oboe, Cor.Ang., 2 Clari.,
B.Clari., 2 Bassoon, C.Bassoon,
4 Horn, 3 Trump., Tromb., B.Tromb., Timp.,
CELLO
Sol.Vio.,Vio. 1,2, Viola, Cello, D.Bass.

Hear with me, the voice of the moon…

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COMMENTS BY MUSICIANS

ALEXANDER BAILLIE - Cellist

“I have just listened to the Cello Sinfonia. I am most impressed. I liked what I heard - a lot. It seems to be a work of great strength and beauty, with some extraordinary scoring and a powerful message.

GEVORG SARGSYAN - Conductor

Being former cellist I was keen to listen to cello concerto.
For cellist, it sounds quite challenging in a technical point of view... I realize, that you got your own style, somewhat closer to jazz(?) and rhythmical 'brakes', which in fact makes your compositions 'energic' and adds more colors.
I liked the idea of different solos combined with cello in a first half.
Please accept my compliments!
With collegial greetings.

JACOB A. SHAW - Cellist

So I listened to the piece and I thought it was really very good. Usually I don't like contemporary works but your concerto was very imaginative, I think it used the compass of the cello very well, whilst maintaining melodies at the same time; this is where a lot of modern works go wrong.
I would very much like to study the full score.
Many thanks, Jacob

JAMIE WALTON - Cellist

“Very interesting work which could benefit from some airing, Jamie”

GREGORY WALMSLEY - Cellist

“I like it !!
The work is full of great interventions between the solo cello and individual instruments from the orchestra. The timpani and brass set up some really good sonorities with jazzy and dissonant solos, and yes, the cello part does appear to be quite busy and challengingly rewarding.
The coda towards the end of the work will sound great, very atmospheric.

SEBASTIAN COMBERTI - Cello Classics Records

I have the tape in the car and have listened to it - it sounds interesting. Have you any prospects of a live performance? Was it written for any one in particular?
I've listened again and despite the severe limitations of the computerised orchestra, it sounds interesting. Really it needs a live recording - maybe you should get a play-through by a conservatoire orchestra.

NICHOLAS ANDERSON - Cellist

I listened to the whole concerto. It's certainly a truly compelling work, and I would be very interested in performing it.

POLLYANNA GUNNING - Sanctuary Records

I think your music is really dramatic and exciting, reminding me in places of Stravinsky or Bartok, and in other places of some of my favourite film scores.
I do wish you the best of luck, and keep at the composing!

A work of great strength and beauty. ALEXANDER BAILLIE

History of the Cello

The history of bowed string musical instruments in Europe dates back to the 9th century with the lira of the Byzantine Empire, a bowed instrument closely related to the Arab rabab. The Persian geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih (d. 911) of the 9th century, in his lexicographical discussion of instruments, cited the Byzantine lira as a typical instrument of the Byzantines along with the urghun (organ), shilyani (probably a type of harp or lyre) and the salandj. The Byzantine lira spread through Europe westward and in the 11th and 12th centuries European writers use the terms fiddle and lira interchangeably when referring to bowed instruments (Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009). In the meantime the Arab rabab was introduced to the Western Europe possibly through the Iberian Peninsula and both bowed instruments spread widely throughout Europe giving birth to various European bowed instruments.

Over the centuries that followed, Europe continued to have two distinct types of bowed instruments: one, relatively square-shaped, held in the arms, known with the Italian term Lira da braccio (or Viola da braccio, meaning viol for the arm), family of the modern violin; the other, with sloping shoulders and held between the knees, known with the Italian term Lira da gamba (or viola da gamba, meaning viol for the leg), family of the Byzantine lyra and the modern cello. During the Renaissance the gambas, were important and elegant instruments; they eventually lost ground to the louder (and originally less aristocratic) lira da braccio. However, the a gamba playing position remained popular to larger instruments that could not be played with a braccio position.

The violoncello da spalla (sometimes "violoncello piccolo da spalla" or "violoncello da span") was the first cello referred to in print (by Jambe de Fer in 1556)

"Violone" means a larger "viola" (viol), while "-cello" in Italian is a diminutive and spalla means "shoulder" in Italian so that violoncello da spalla suggest a "little big violin" that may be held on the shoulder so that the player could perform while walking or that the early, short-necked instrument was hung across the shoulder by a strap.

Monteverdi referred to the instrument as "basso de viola da braccio" in Orfeo (1607). Although the first bass violin, possibly invented by Amati as early as 1538, was most likely inspired by the viol, it was created to be used in consorts with the violin. The bass violin was actually often referred to as a "violone," or "large viola," as were the viols of the same period. Instruments that share features with both the bass violin and the viola de gamba appear in Italian art of the early 1500s...

The invention of wire-wound strings (fine wire around a thin gut core), around 1660 in Bologna, allowed for a finer bass sound than was possible with purely gut strings on such a short body. Bolognese makers exploited this new technology to create the cello, a somewhat smaller instrument suitable for solo repertoire due to both the timbre of the instrument and the fact that the smaller size made it easier to play virtuosic passages. This instrument had disadvantages as well, however. The cello's light sound was not as suitable for church and ensemble playing, so it had to be doubled by basses or violones.

Around 1700, Italian players popularised the cello in northern Europe, although the bass violin (basse de violon) continued to be used for another two decades in France.

Many existing bass violins were literally cut down in size in order to convert them into cellos according to the smaller pattern cello as developed by Stradivarius, who also made a number of old pattern large cellos (the 'Servais'). The bass violin remained the "most used" instrument in England as late as 1740, where the violoncello was still "not common." The sizes, names, and tunings of the cello varied widely by geography and time. The size was not standardized until around 1750.

Despite similarities to the viola da gamba, the cello is actually part of the viola da braccio family, meaning "viol of the arm", which includes, among others, the violin and viola. Though paintings like Bruegel's "The Rustic Wedding" and de Fer in his Epitome Musical suggest that the bass violin had alternate playing positions, these were short-lived and the more practical and ergonomic a gamba position eventually replaced them entirely.

A cello strung with gut strings. Note the absence of fine-tuning pins on the tailpiece.

Baroque era cellos differed from the modern instrument in several ways. The neck has a different form and angle which matches the baroque bass-bar and stringing. Modern cellos have an endpin at the bottom to support the instrument (and transmit some of the sound through the floor), while Baroque cellos are held only by the calves of the player. Modern bows curve in and are held at the frog; Baroque bows curve out and are held closer to the bow's point of balance. Modern strings normally have a metal core, although some use a synthetic core; Baroque strings are made of gut, with the G and C strings wire-wound. Modern cellos often have fine-tuners connecting the strings to the tailpiece, which make it much easier to tune the instrument, but such pins are rendered ineffective by the flexibility of the gut strings used on Baroque cellos. Overall, the modern instrument has much higher string tension than the Baroque cello, resulting in a louder, more projecting tone, with fewer overtones.

No educational works specifically devoted to the cello existed before the 18th century, and those that do exist contain little value to the performer beyond simple accounts of instrumental technique. The earliest cello manual is Michel Corrette's Méthode, thèorique et pratique pour apprendre en peu de temps le violoncelle dans sa perfection (Paris, 1741).